New types of women discrimination constantly appear across the world. This phenomenon has an explicit character in the developing countries, but it can also exist in the states with quite a high level of life. Nevertheless, the discrimination archives the form of economic oppressions. The most popular gender gap is the wage problem. Canada suffers from it quite distinctly. The women feel deep dissatisfaction and disappointment with the amount of their wages. The biggest problem is that the country has a progressive economy and provides comfortable life conditions but it cannot provide a necessary payment for the female jobs. Canada is one of the most prosperous states and it is necessary to admit that the general level of living is quite high in comparison with the other parts of the world. In fact, the problem of gender wage gap appeared long ago and has become more acute ever since. Although, Canada has all the possibilities to allow women earn bigger payment, the situation does not change and gets even worst.
The statistics proves the depressing data of the gender wage gap in Canada. The payment in the labor market for men and women distinctly differs. This type of economic discrimination stands for considerable inequality between the genders in the country, because women feel injustice towards them at the workplace. A 2015 UN Human Rights report raised a level of the pay gap (Canadian Womens Foundation, n. d.). The high rate of the low-income women makes them a minority on the labor market. Men feel significant superiority in this respect and form the majority. Out of 34 countries, Canada occupied the 7th place in terms of the gender wage gap in 2014 (Canadian Womens Foundation, n. d.). Consequently, it can give the answer why such rich country suffers from poverty. The problem is significant, because all the measurement and statistics still confirm the lowest rate of wages among women. Comparing the full time and part-time workers, the results do not make any difference. The part-time female workers earn 66, 7% for every dollar earned by men; the full-time workers receive 72% for every dollar (Canadian Womens Foundation, n. d.). The calculations and evaluations of the situation do not change the statistics.
The wage gap is a complicated problem caused by a complex of factors. The rate of working women has increased from 42% to 60% over the last 30 years, but the government and employers fail to make appropriate response to the situation. Women have the same obstacles in the labor market. The world constantly changes, but the attitude towards women is still at the former level. The biggest problem is the stereotypes and a tendency to perceive women as a part of domestic equipment. Female-dominated job classes are often seen as not being skilled because the tasks are related to domestic jobs that women are expected to carry out for free in their homes (Canadian Womens Foundation, n. d.). The majority of the successful company owners consider women less skilled. However, women in Canada have often a higher level of education than men: 55% of women (vs. 46% of men) aged 25 to 64 have attained a tertiary degree (OECD, 2012). Men used to think that women have to stay at home instead of having a job. Besides, they will never provide the possibility for women to earn more, because of the gender dominance stereotype. The companies may reduce the wages for women in order to hire a man to this or that position, because women may pay much attention to domestic affairs instead of work. The stereotypical thinking ruins the possibility of women to earn more and be protected from poverty.
The factor of occupation also plays an important role in this problem. As a rule, women occupy the less paid positions. This problem is largely caused by some inner fears that the woman cannot cope with the task, and men can do it better. However, the statistics confirms that men usually have highly paid professions. It is not the tradition; it is rather the result of physical abilities and skills. Men have the positions in the industrial sphere and perform different difficult tasks. However, women usually are involved in the social sphere. They work as teachers and nurses, being part of the health care system and the office administration or other service providing industries (Canadian Womens Foundation, n. d.). Boris Hirsch (2010) has investigated this question and made a conclusion that women do not exhibit high demands to the employment (p.199). They are ready to take a less paid position, while men have greater demands. In addition, the successful negotiation is the most important factor for the future amount of wages. The position of men during the process is more persuasive, as they usually have the high wage demands.
However, the economic factor of the problem also has a negative effect on the womens salary. Economics works to invest more in the male-dominated sector. It happens that the sphere of male jobs is the most profitable, and the biggest part of investments actually goes to the men-occupied sphere. Besides, the hospitals or schools do not bring much profit. The female-dominated sector is less paid. However, women must understand the actual risk of defying the future profession. Women cannot achieve a high level of carrier at the social services, for example. Therefore, the wages gap increases every year, because when men improve their status and get some promotion, women still face the same problem. In addition, the womens nature limits their possibilities, because if men can continue education and training, women have to take care about children and home affairs. Some women willingly leave their carrier in order to raise children (Ontario Equal Pay Coalition, n.d.). Of course, it is the happiest time, but the problem of wage gap becomes more acute. Therefore, these factors and many others force women to look for a part-time job.
Uncomfortable system of the childrens care compels women to work as part-time workers. The problem is that such workers do not have an opportunity to undergo training and get promotion at the workplace. Instead, they work hard and have to cope with all the domestic affairs and children upbringing and get for it quite a low payment. About 70% of part-time workers in 2013 were women, a proportion that has remained steady for three decades (Canadian Womens Foundation, n. d.). Of course, the part-time work is a significant factor of the gender wage gap. Pettit and Hook (2009) investigated the problem of the part-time job. The researchers conclude that part-time jobs are associated with the female occupation, as the greater number of women not men are employed part-time (Pettit & Hook, 2009, p. 82). The social pressure on women has a strong influence, which forces them to look for the part-time jobs. It is a stereotypical idea that a woman has to work and deal with some domestic affairs. It is not easy to solve all the problems at once; that is why women prefer to care for the family at home.
The issue of discrimination is the strongest factor of the gender wage gap in Canada. It is associated with different factors. However, it is obvious that the labor market makes women weaker and deprives them of a possibility to prove that they can cope with any male work or do it even better. The gender discrimination based on the wage gap is associated with a stereotypic idea that a woman has to stay at home. The discrimination is the most important aspect that disposes women to poverty (Gornick & Meyers, 2003, p. 47). In addition, men feel some dissatisfaction about the feministic demands to make their wages equal. It contradicts the idea that men must always earn more. It is some kind of antifeminist comprehension of labor in the country and most women accept it. It is actually a sociological problem when women inherit the status of a weak gender in the society. The situation with the wages is an attempt to make women take care only about the home affairs. However, instead of it, the idea leads women into poverty and compels them to work additional 14 years in order to earn the same money the men earn (Canadian Womens Foundation, n. d.). It is the highest level of discrimination. However, discrimination concerns not only all women in general, but also depends on the origin. The problem of the wage gap in Canada is well known, but today it concerns the women of sub-groups. The most depressing fact is that the native Canadian girls and women of color can earn less than the new Canadian can. The aboriginal woman must work at least two days in order to get the same payment that the man can earn during only one day (Hobbs & Rice, 2013). It is not the way to improve the womens life; it is a way to make it even more complicated.
It is necessary to change the situation on the governmental level, because this problem causes serious damage to the general welfare of the citizens. The issue is important, as the problem of the gender wage gap has many negative consequences. The biggest danger is poverty, because many women come across this problem because of the lack of money. It may cause not only some sociological instability, but also a serious economic disaster. In addition, women suffer from discrimination. Thus, they earn less than men earn but have to work even harder. It is the humiliation of the personality. Besides, the life of women is quite complicated because of their natural physiology. They have to work, get pregnant and take care of children, but their payment does not correspond to the level of their efforts in comparison with men. Actually, the married men do not feel such a significant responsibility for the domestic affairs as women do: they can continue education and move forward in their carrier. The wage gap problem poses a serious threat for women, because a person cannot guarantee the future with such small earnings. In case a woman lives alone without a husband, she will not be able to cover all the expenditures. Generally, the life of a woman depends on many factors, because she has to work hard at workplace and at home. According to Statistics Canada, women at every age are more likely than men to describe their days as quite a bit or extremely stressful (Canadian Womens Foundation, n. d.). It can cause some health problems. The sufficient payment must cover all the possible unexpected situations and supply women with everything necessary.
The highly evaluated system can solve the problem and improve the life of women in general. The statistics on the less-paid occupations has to be changed. Four broad headings demonstrate how best to solve the gender-gap: 1) Gender equality, social norms and public policies; and gender equality in 2) education; 3) employment and 4) entrepreneurship (OECD, 2012). The new governmental program must support the sphere of the traditional female occupation. In addition, the traditional male workers should also apply for female labor. This issue can be solved in case women get engaged in technological education. The system of traditional women labor should be improved, taking into consideration the problems with children and pregnancy. The governmental program concerning the womens place on the labor market must be revised and sufficiently improved. It is necessary to admit that all representatives of the female gender must value their life and take much care of their social position. Women must cherish their rights to have the same wages as the men have, and be more confident during the negotiations. The struggle for equality in the society is not so easy, especially because Canadians are used to live according to some old stereotypes, which violate womens rights. This system has to be changed. The society has to change the understanding of the womens place in the labor market. The biggest problem is that people are used to think that women are the minorities in this sphere. The sociologists and psychologists must help women to treat their lives with certain respect and substitute the conception of the minority for the equality. Nevertheless, the governmental reforms must perform the biggest part of these activities in order to eliminate the gender wage gap in Canada. Many positive changes have already taken place.
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Although, the statistics does not admit any progress in Canada concerning the wage problem, the process of improvement has been launched. The establishment of the social organization the Canadian Womens Foundation tries to help low-income women escape from the poverty level. They work to improve the situation, protecting the womens rights. There are many acts contributing to solving gender wage gap. The Pay Equity Act in Ontario offers a practice of compensation to eliminate gender gap (Pay Equity Commission, 2012). The similar programs appear constantly across the whole country. It is hard to make some conclusions about it, because the process requires some time. However, it is necessary to admit that the women started to protect their rights actively focusing on the gender equality. The Canadian Womens Foundation made the biggest contribution to the process, because every woman, whom they helped, will contribute to Canadian economy, and to the future of the next generations.
Therefore, the gender wage gap in Canada brings about many troubles for women. The economic situation in the country is quite good, but the position of women in the society does not correspond to the level of a highly developed country. Women suffered from the specific type of discrimination. The gender wage gap is the result of certain factors. The attitude of the company owners towards women is based on the old traditions. Men consider that girls have to stay at home and pay more attention to domestic problems instead of carrier planning. Some social traditions and stereotypes have made women be afraid of their possibilities so that they choose less paid professions, which are traditionally female. It is possible to assume that it is necessary to change the social position of women in the society. The governmental reforms must forecast all the options of improving the situation and do everything possible to make the wages equal. In this regard, the organization of the Canadian Womens Foundation makes significant attempts to overcome the gender wage gap.
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